The Basics of Printed Circuit Boards

Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are among the key items in the field of electronics. These are so fundamental and yet a lot of people do not know what they are. In this article, the basic definition and composition of printed circuit boards will be discussed.

Definition and Origin

Also called printed wiring cards or printed wiring boards, printed circuit boards are created through a rigorous process of wiring. In time, the point-to-point method of wiring ended up in short circuits and wire junction failures as soon as the insulation of the wiring started to crack and age.

The development of the process of wire wrapping served as a huge advancement in the creation of PCBs. Here, a tiny gauge wire is wrapped around a post on every connecting point. This created a connection that is gas-tight, easily modifiable and extremely durable.

Over time, even more advancements and improvements in the field of electronics surfaced. What started from relays and vacuum tubes soon moved to silicon and then to integrated circuits. At the same time, the cost and size of the components needed began to decrease. More and more consumer goods incorporated the use of electronics, which led to a high demand in reducing – even more – the costs of manufacturing and the sizes of the electronic products. In turn, manufacturers had to find better and more effective solutions. This is when printed circuit boards were born.

Printed Circuit BoardsA PCB is a board with pads and lines that connect different points to each other. There are traces in the board that connect different components and connectors to each other via electricity. The PCB lets power and signals to be routed through various physical devices. The metal that creates these electrical connections on the PCB’s surface and in other components is called “solder”. Because it is a metal, it is also an efficient and durable mechanical adhesive.

Composition of PCBs

Think of printed circuit boards like an electronic type of lasagna or layered cake. It has various materials layered in alternating fashion, laminated together using adhesives and heat. In order to understand how it works, it’d help by knowing the layers in a common board.

The following are the layers of PCBs, starting from the inside out:

1. FR4

The PCB’s substrate or base material is commonly fiberglass. FR4 is the most common designator for this material. It makes for a solid core, giving the board great thickness and rigidity.

2. Copper

A thin copper foil forms the next layer. It is laminated to the PCB using adhesive and heat. Double-sided PCBs have copper on both of the substrate’s sides. Cheaper gadgets may have copper on just one side. There can be as few as one or as many as 16 layers in the PCB.

3. Soldermask

The soldermask is the layer found on top of the copper layer. It gives the board its signature green color (although some manufacturers have begun creating other colors). The layer is overlaid onto the copper foil so that it can serve as insulation to the copper traces, in case accidental contact with solder, metals or conductive bits take place. The soldermask helps in soldering at the right places and in avoiding solder jumpers.

4. Silkscreen

On top of the soldermask layer is a white silkscreen layer. This one adds the numbers, letters and symbols seen on the board. These are essential for easier assembly. Users understand the board better, too, using these indicators. Silkscreen labels are commonly used to indicate the function of each LED or pin on the board.

By learning the fundamental composition and functions of PCB parts, it’s easier to understand the way they work – and even more helpful in trying to solve any possible problems like malfunctions and defects. offers services that are pre-loaded saving your time and money allowing you to get Pcb product to market faster and more cost effectively.

Advantages of Hybrid Clubs Over Traditional Clubs

Compared to conventional irons, hybrid clubs need more of a sweeping swing, but most players achieve a higher trajectory they expect when using hybrids.

This happens sometimes because the player was de-lofting and closing the clubface when hitting a traditional iron. But the wider sole of a hybrid club promotes a squarer setup, which makes players attain the proper distance and height for that club, even if it is not the distance that they are used to.

Getting consistent, reliable distance is easier when clubs are used with their proper loft. If you want less or more distance, just move up or down one golf club instead of controlling the clubface.

Hybrids vs. Other Clubs

Using a testing machine and hitting in the center of the clubface, a 7-hybrid would have the same distance as a standard 7-iron. The hybrid excels of off-center hits; since it is more forgiving compared to a traditional iron, the distance would be farther for the hybrid club. On off-center hits, hybrids also have better accuracy.

Compared to fairway woods, hybrid clubs also have design advantages. For instance, you can play hybrids with the same ball position as regular irons. Therefore, your hybrids must have the same shaft flex, swing weight, and length as your irons.

A lot of players, especially those who want to sweep the ball instead of hitting down and taking a divot, have been successful by replacing their traditional irons with hybrid ones.

Using Hybrid Golf Clubs in Your Game

Hybrids are not new in the world of golf, but there are still some golfers who are slow to adapt. For the past decade or so, hybrids have been steadily gaining popularity. Nowadays, they are essentials that you can see in the golf bags of the best tour golfers as well as beginners. Hybrid golf clubs perfectly fill the gap between irons and woods, and they are versatile, easy to hit, and accurate.

•Brings Confidence

Hybrid clubsWhat do you feel upon looking down from your position as you prepare hitting a long iron shot? You may be confident that you can cleanly strike the long iron and send the ball really high into the air, or you may be nervous that you need to make good enough contact to get the ball off the turf. Long irons, for most golfers, are clubs that instill fear instead of confidence. This is one of the reasons hybrid clubs became very popular. Instead of worrying over a tough 3-iron shot, you could use a hybrid and take the shot easily.


Hybrid golf clubs give you options when you are playing a round of golf. You are only allowed to place 14 clubs in your bag, so you need to make sure every club serves as many purposes as possible. For instance, you will not only use your sand wedge for shots from the sand, but you can also use it for short approaches, pitch shots, chip shots, etc. Similarly, hybrids can be used for various purposes during a round.


In case your ball is just off the border of the green on a short grass, you can bump-and-run the ball to the hole using a hybrid club. This could be a suitable shot since it might be easier to execute compared to a regular chip shot using a wedge. Moreover, you could use this strategy from farther off the green instead of using your putter. Through a motion like your putting stroke, just rock the hybrid back and forth. The ball must pop out of the grass, then bounce once or twice, and start rolling quickly across the green. Practice this technique with your hybrid clubs before using them on the course because it might take a bit of time to properly control your distance.

•Fairway Bunker Shots

In golf, one of the toughest shots is a long shot coming from a fairway bunker. If you are in this situation, you may use a hybrid club so you can pick the ball from the top of the sand. Compared to using a long iron, using a hybrid will make it easier for you to hit the shot at full distance into the target. However, make sure that there is not much edge in front of you because it may cause a relatively low shot. If you are hitting a shot from a deep fairway bunker, you might have to use a lofted iron to make sure you could safely get the ball out.

•Punch Out of Trouble

Every now and then, players hit bad drives – it is part of the game. If your ball is in trouble from the side of the fairway, you can use a hybrid club to make a punch shot back into the short grass. A lot of players make their punch shots using a long iron, but it could be tough to hit these shots solid enough to achieve the distance you need. When using hybrid clubs to hit a punch, you must do your best to make a compact swing, so you could have a low, controlled ball flight.

Custom Military Coins that Match the Special Breed of Men and Women in Military Service

What are military coins and why are they so prevalent in the Armed Forces? They go by many names such as military challenge coins, custom military coins, or commander’s coins, and they are reserved and given out for the select few who happen to be members of a unit, have done a great deed deserving recognition, or have reached career milestones.

The use of military challenge coins are believed to have started in World War I when a richofficerfunded the minting of military coins for distribution to members of his flying squadron. The tale in which it has saved a soldier’s life may be a bit on the apocryphal side, but the use of custom military coins as proof of identity and affiliation with a military unit rings true – and this is probably the reason why to this day, challenge coins continue to be used as a symbol of membership in a branch, unit, or organization.

custommilitarycoinsCoin passing is a culture that has caught on in many other non-military groups but it continues to be a fascinating sight for civilians when they catch a glimpse of military coins being passed from one hand to another. There are a lot of humanity and emotion in the way that custom military coins are given out discreetly through handshakes. Most military officials and members are viewed as rigid and unemotional yet the act of giving military coins brings out smilesin the giver and the recipient.

President Obama gives out military challenge coins to deserving members and officers of the Armed Forces and some members of the media have been lucky to steal a glimpse of the supposed secret “coinshake” on several occasions. One of his initial handoffs weren’t as smooth though. Sgt. Kristie Ness awkwardly dropped the coin handed to her by the president just before he was to go on board the Marine One helicopter. The president very gentlemanly bent down to retrieve the coin off the ground and put it back in her palm. The failed handoff was widely reported and the two were photographed sharing a good laugh on the incident.

On the fun side, custom military coins are widely used in coin checks or challenges where the holder has to show the appropriate challenge coin to avoid dire consequences. The rules of the challenge game vary among units, but the penalty for not bringing one’s military challenge coin revolve around buying drinks for unit members who happen to have their coins with them.This can be really expensive and to this day, many enlisted members take great care to ensure that they have their coins with them in the event of a coin challenge.

On the other hand, most soldiers and enlisted members who won their military challenge coins by risking life and limbs on delicate missions respect and treasure their military coins as proof of their loyalty to their unit and their readiness to make the ultimate sacrifice.

The graves of those who perished in battles are honoured with military coins presented by their unit commanders and high ranking officials of the country. Their families will always be reminded of their heroic deed through military challenge coins that depict the ideals that their loved ones have bravely fought for.

Unit commanders use custom coins as a tool to build the morale of valiant and hardworking service members who are giving their best and pouring their talents beyond the call of duty.

Because they serve such gallant purposes, custom military coins are specially crafted to match the distinct bravery and dedication of the enlisted members of the Armed Forces and their units.

Buy Instagram Followers for Online Popularity

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Buy Instagram FollowersforIn the world of social media, fame is the name of the game.Gaining more admirers puts you on the pedestal of famous personalities, even those who earned fame through the Internet.If you feel that you are a little shorthanded when talking about fame,you need to have a boost in your number of followers,especially on Instagram,where photos compete with each other for attention and expression of a thousand words.

You can buy Instagram followerswhen you have exhausted the various ways to gain followers the natural way.You do not have to spend cash to buy Instagram followers just yet.There are legitimate tips and tricks to getting the followers you want without spending a single cent.

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The second trick is to hold a photo contest,with a specialty item as its grand prize. This applies more for businesses, but you can also apply it personally if in case you need to part with a much-loved item of yours that others are more than likely to get their hands on.

The third one is also applicable for businesses,and it constitutes of posting photos of anything related to your business – shots of your office,your employees at work, and your products.You can do this “a photo a day” challenge for potential users to become interested and to show how your business is unique from the rest.

The fourth one, which is standard practice for businesses and popular websites alike,is cross-promotion. Thou shall not live on Instagram alone – you must own multiple social media accounts,plus your official website.Link all these sites for them to work their magic. Widgets are one way to cross-promote your accounts,as is the utilization of easily-accessible buttons that represent the major social media sites.Websites that provide free graphics will more often than not provide those buttons for your use.

tips and tricksThese strategies will allow you to naturally increase your Instagram followers. If this is not enough,you can certainly buy Instagram followers to give your efforts a little boost.As a word of caution, though, you should never abuse those tricks and tips.You should be careful not to do anything that violates Instagram’s terms of use or you can kiss your dreams of instant fame goodbye. You may need to buy Instagram followers,but pick only those from legitimate sources.Remember that it’s not the number of followers you have in Instagram that ultimately brings you the attention and revenues you want.You still have to work hard to keep your followers with quality content.